Mature bletilla form a series of inflorescences (racemes) for up to 10 weeks in the spring or early summer.

Wealthy orchid fanatics sent collectors and explorers all over the world to bring back rare and beautiful species to be sold at auction for outrageous prices. The backbulbs remain attached to the crown of the plant for a few years to provide energy, but they eventually deteriorate. The spiral is often so tight it is hard to discern, but some individuals have beautiful, long, curving, spiral architecture.

These are perfect candidates for the woodland garden, the evergreen pleated leaves mature in the fall and remain during most winters. The spice vanilla is derived from the seed pods of the orchid genus vanilla. One genus in particular is dactylorhiza, which is native to cool parts of the world including the northern US states, northern Europe and the Himalayas. It prefers a very well drained but moist soil such as sphagnum moss mixed with sand...difficult to grow. They are grayish-white or yellowish-white in appearance, with concentric rings and brown rootlets.

(Hardiness Zone 6-9), Bletilla striata 'First Kiss' (First Kiss Chinese Ground Orchid) There are a number of white-edged leaf forms of the hardy orchid, most without valid names. Other species produce structures that may look like a round bulb, or a flattened corm. Although calanthes are fairly drought tolerant, they grow and flower much better in rich, evenly moist, organic soils. This beautiful and hardy deciduous orchid has the distinction of being one of the first orchids in cultivation in England dating from around 1794[citation needed]. al., (2004), The Orchid in Legend and Lore, Timber Press, Portland Oregon, Pg. The pleated, tapered foliage looks very similar to the juvenile leaves of many palm species. The seeds are surface sterilized and placed into jars containing a special growth mix of agar, sugars, hormones, and nutrients (the "Knudsen formula"). This species is easy to grow, provided it is kept dry in the winter. They prefer well drained evenly moist soils that are high in organic material and that never dry out nor remain sodden. Calopogon flowers are unique because the labellum, which on most orchids is located below the petals, is at the top of the flower and has ornamental yellow hairs. al., (1998), Conservation Genetics and Taxonomic Status of the Rare Kentucky Lady's Slipper: Cypripedium kentuckiense (Orchidaceae), American Journal of Botany, 85(12): pp.1789-1786 Chase, M., (2001), The Origin and Biogeography of Orchidaceae, in Genera Orchidacearum Volume 2, Orchidoideae (Part 1), Edited by Pridgeon, A.M., and Cribb, P., Oxford University Press.Confucian Virtue and Music: A Structure of Harmony, http://history.cultural- china.com/en/165History5899.htmlCribb, P. (1997), The Genus Cypripedium, A Botanical Magazine Monograph, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Timber Press, Portland OregonCribb, P. et.

Spiranthes cernua var. This vigorous grower will quickly make a colony when grown in rich, moist soil. We have tried reportedly winter hardy cultivars of Cymbidium ensifolium and Cymbidium sinense with no luck so far. (Hardiness Zone 2-8), Cremastra appendiculata (Handle Orchid) Native to China, Korea, Taiwan, India, Vietnam, Thailand, and Japan from 3000' - 6000' elevation, this rare and endangered, but fairly easy-to-grow late-spring-blooming orchid has stalks of peach-colored flowers in early summer.

Spiranthes flower color is typically white but may be pale yellow or pink.

(Hardiness Zone 7b-8), Bletilla ochracea 'Chinese Butterfly' Strain (Chinese Butterfly Ground Orchid) The 20" wispy flower stalks emerge from below-ground pseudobulbs, and top the iris-like pleated leaves in June. I have read reports of Zone 5 hardiness, but have yet to see confirmed temperature data of plants withstanding -20F without snow cover. It features tall, 30" stalks of pale, creamy-yellow flowers. In summer, the lightly fragrant flowers composed of a white lip and tan petals dangle from the 10" tall flower stalk. If potted, they should be placed in a frost-free location if winter temperatures go below freezing. After one season, the leafless pseudobulbs are then called backbulbs. The racemes of flowers emerge from the center of the years new growth before it is mature, during spring and early summer. The genus name is derived from the Greek "speira" (spiral) and "anthos" (flower). Tipularia discolor is widespread in dry woodlands from New York south to Texas. (Hardiness Zone 6b-9), Cremastra unguiculata (Handle Orchid) This Japanese native to Hokkaido, Honshu, and Shikoku is rarely seen in the cultivation. The foliage is evergreen in mild winters but may become deciduous when temperatures approach 10 degrees F. (Hardiness Zone 6-9), Calanthe Hizen Hybrids (Hizen Calanthe Orchid)This series of hardy orchid hybrids from Japan (Calanthe discolor x Calanthe aristulifera) form basal rosettes of heavily pleated olive green leaves. Kirishima Calanthe Orchid) One of the rarest of the Japanese endemic species, Calanthe aristulifera hails from the mountains of Japan's Kyushu Island. (Hardiness Zone 8-10, at least), Bletilla ochracea (Golden Chinese Ground Orchid) Bletilla ochracea hails from evergreen forests and grasslands from 1000'- 7500' elevation in Vietnam and the Chinese provinces of Gansu, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, Sichuan, and Yunnan. Bletilla goes by the common name Ground Orchid.

The upper part of the flower is white, while the lip is a contrasting purple. The single-leaf wintergreen orchids (aplectrum, cremastra and tipularia) each form a large single solitary leaf in the fall that persists through the winter and finally dies off just before the flowers arise in the spring or summer. 358-365, http://www.aos.orgWeaver, R.E., and Stoutamire, W.P., (2008), Intergeneric crosses with Bletilla, in: Orchids; the magazine of the American Orchid Society, Vol 77 (5), pp.

We have also failed with many species of liparis and orchis, although we continue to experiment. Spiranthes odorata) This native orchid is the southern form of Spiranthes cernua, ranging from Virginia south to Florida. The orchid obsession was fueled in part by the 1851 publication of The Orchid Grower's Manual by B.S. Habenaria species like to live slightly up slope of calopogon but can still be considered moisture lovers. They cannot tolerate aspects of our tough climate such as our extreme summer heat, rain or humidity, our cool wet winters, or our periodic droughts. This is not a plant for the dry, shady garden. (Hardiness Zone 5-8), Habenaria radiata (Egret Plant) Native to China and Japan, the white flower of this orchid has frilled petals and looks like an egret. 5- 120.Hicks, A.J., Asymbiotic Technique of Orchid Seed Germination, Published by The Orchid Seedbank Project, Chandler Arizona, http://members.cox.net/ahicks51/osp/Hunt, P.F., (2000), Rules of Nomenclature and Registration for Orchid Hybrids, http://www.cypripedium.de/forum/messages/92.htmlJeffery, C. (1982), An Introduction to Plant Taxonomy, 2nd Ed., Cambridge University Press, Pg.

In order to provide well-drained, cool, moist soil it is best to mix compost with your native soil. (Hardiness Zone 7-9), Calanthe discolor (Discolor Calanthe Orchid) The Japanese native Calanthe discolor emerges from the pseudobulb with 2-3 heavily pleated 6" long by 2" wide leaves. As the leaves emerge edged in a narrow band of white, the flower spike arises through the center and then opens a few inches above the foliage. (Hardiness Zone 6-9), Bletilla striata 'Kuchibeni' (Kuchibeni Chinese Ground Orchid) This hard to find but easy-to-grow cultivar from Japan is distinguished by its two-toned flowers.

Most species of calopogon and epipactis frequent wet, sunny swales, bogs, fens, streams, ponds, wet prairies, road ditches and the edges of marshy areas. It is both well drained (lots of air in it) and moist (lots of water in it).