Right up ’til today in Iran, Nowruz festivities are sometimes called: Nowruz Jasmshedi. The recording was made in Istanbul in 1993, and the ceremony includes in an order typical of a cem: a deyiş that reiterates the line of descent of the sect in a historical framework, two divas (one based on the poetry of Hatâ'î, and the other on the poetry of Kul Himmet), prayer formulas, the ill-Âllâh genre that incorporates the tahlîl formula into the poem to create an atmosphere of zikr while sect members create rhythmic intensity by hitting their knees in time to the music and sway their bodies slightly, the Dance of the Forty (Kırklar Semah), the Dance of the Cranes (Turnalar Semahı) and prayer formulas. According to scholar Marianne Aringberg-Laanatza, "the Turkish Alevis... do not relate themselves in any way to the Alawites in Syria. ), Wilpert, Czarina (1990) "Religion and Ethnicity: Orientations, Perceptions and Strategies among Turkish Alevi and Sunni Migrants in Berlin." [6] They hold the latter to be superior and eternal and this is reflected in their understanding of both the universe and humanity, which is a view that can also be found in Ismailism and Batiniyya.[25]. Hidrellez honors the mysterious figure Khidr (Turkish Hizir) who is sometimes identified with the prophet Elijah (Ilyas), and is said to have drunk of the water of life. However, Alevi worship takes place in assembly houses (cemevi) rather than mosques. The festivities start on the last Wednesday before the Iranian New Year with Chaharshanbe Suri, when Iranians leap over bonfires in streets to celebrate the end of the year. The study was done in 2000 and included all ethnic groupings. Some Alevis are uncomfortable describing themselves as orthodox Shi‘i, since there are major differences in philosophy, customs, and rituals from the prevailing form of Shi‘ism in Iraq and modern Iran. Although the traditions and celebration styles that go with the festival of Nowruz change from country to country, the underlying foundations are the same: celebrating the rebirth of nature, spreading love and peace, uniting people together. You may also spot the nation’s public figures and leaders praying at the Istiqlal Mosque during Eid al-Fitr. The existence of the third and fourth gates is mostly theoretical, though some older Alevis have apparently received initiation into the third. It is common among families, friends, and neighbors to share their food with each other, and children go door to door singing Novruz songs and collecting candies and gifts. [EXPLAINED]Eid al Fitr 2020: When will the moon be visible in UK? What’s a better way to conclude the holy month of Ramadan than sharing your blessings with the less fortunate? Thus an unveiled Alevi woman cannot impugn her honour or her communities. Other, similar practices include kissing door frames of holy rooms; not stepping on the threshold of holy buildings; seeking prayers from reputed healers; and making lokma and sharing it with others. "Kizilbaş-Kurden in Dersim (Tunceli, Türkei). Pir Sultan Abdal, a 16th-century Alevi poet whose poems and songs often contain spiritual themes, is revered as a saint and hero. The festivals continue with a day of traditional food, music, social events, and diverse family activities – as well as an emblematic presentation, Haft-Seen Table, respecting the Persian New Year. The following are major crimes that cause an Alevi to be declared düşkün (shunned): Most Alevi activity takes place in the context of the second gate (spiritual brotherhood), during which one submits to a living spiritual guide (dede, pir, mürşit). Today Nowruz is celebrated in Kurdistan as a remembrance of the victory against Zahak. Various cem ceremonies and special programs are held. However, the Turkish, Zazaki and Kurdish-speaking Alevi are not to be confused with the ‘Alawī of Syria, with whom they have little in common other than a shared veneration for ‘Alī. The name is a Turkish, Zazaki and Kurdish pronunciation of ‘Alawī () "of or pertaining to ‘Alī". Nowruz holds great significance for the Azeri community in Georgia, as well. Nowruz is also the time when Iranian Santa Claus, known as Hajji Firuz, appears in streets across Iran, and hands out Nowruz gifts or candies to children and sings joyous songs to welcome the Persian New Year. [50] The Ottoman Empire later proclaimed themselves its defenders against the Safavid Shia state and related sects. In Alevi cosmology, God is also called Al-Haqq (the Truth)[14] or referred to as Allah. In the case of the Hacibektaş celebration, since 1990 the activities there have been taken over by Turkey's Ministry of Culture in the interest of promoting tourism and Turkish patriotism rather than Alevi spirituality. 6). In addition to avoiding any sort of comfort or enjoyment, Alevis also abstain from food and water for the entire day, though they do drink liquids other than water during the evening. The study was done in 2000 and included all ethnic groupings (not just Alevis). Sökefeld, Martin (2004) “Alevis in Germany and the Question of Integration” paper presented at the Conference on the Integration of Immigrants from Turkey in Austria, Germany and Holland, Boğaziçi University, Istanbul, February 27-28, 2004. They are realized as twelve services or On İki Hizmet which are performed by members of the Alevi community. Gül, Zeynel. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. (2008), Aleviliğin Siyasal Örgütlenmesi: Modernleşme, Çözülme ve Türkiye Birlik Partisi. We, Sikhs, celebrate Diwali but not Eid. The Alevi (; Zazaki and ) are a religious, sub-ethnic and cultural community in Turkey, numbering in the tens of millions. Nowroz is the Persian name for the Persian New Year or the Iranian New Year. [23][24] In contrast the Sunni majority of Turkey's population follows Maturidi aqidah of the Hanafi fiqh and Ash'ari aqidah of the Shafi'i fiqh. Iranians get ready for the event by cleaning their homes, preparing for visitors to come over and share the traditional Nowruz dinners. They become subjects of an Ottoman court which viewed them with suspicion. Moreover, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini decreed Alevis to be part of the Shia fold in the 1970s. You can also string up some lights and light candles around your home to decorate for the festivities. Ramadan 2020 end date: When does Ramadan end, when is Eid this year? The phrase mum söndü ("The candle went out") alludes to an accusation about a holy moment of some cem rituals in which twelve candles (representing the Twelve Imams) are doused with water. Alevis also donate money to be used to help the poor, to support the religious, educational and cultural activities of Alevi centers and organizations (dergâh, vakıf, dernek), and to provide scholarships for students. We will use your email address only for sending you newsletters. Mercan Dede, an artist whose music combines electronic and traditional Sufi elements, has made some songs involving Alevi themes in cooperation with singer Sabahat Akkiraz. (2009), Alevice: İnancımız ve Direncimiz. The Alevis (Kizilbash) are traditionally predominantly rural and acquire identity by parentage. During the celebration of Eid, feel free to visit the neighbors you never get the chance to know, or the family members you haven’t seen in a while. "Kizilbaş-Kurden in Dersim (Tunceli, Türkei). 52- 70. The Islamic community was divided into those who adhered to Abu Bakr, named Sunnis, and those who sided with Ali, called Shia. The âyîn-î-cem can be heard on the JVC CD Turkey – An Esoteric Sufi Ceremony. Abdülbaki Gölpinarli), Nasr, V: "The Shia Revival," page 1. On Persian New Year eve, every Iranian family gathers around the Haft-Seen Table and watches the New Year countdown on television. Thousands of people will gather at Jakarta’s Istiqlal Mosque for Eid prayers, celebrating the special event together with family and friends. They also take the sabzeh grass from the Haft Seen Table with them, which is believed to gather all the bad luck of a family during Nowruz, and then discard it in a flowing river. White, Paul J., & Joost Jongerden (eds.) He wears a red shroud and a red felt hat, sings Nowruz songs, plays a tambourine or drum in city streets and squares, gives gifts to children, and bring joyfulness to the Nowruz festivity. Religious practices in the Turco-Iranian world: continuity and change, Anadolu Aleviliği’nde Ocak Sistemi Ve Dedelik Kurumu, https://islam.wikia.org/wiki/Alevi?oldid=11047, Love and respect for all people (“The important thing is not religion, but being a human being”), Tolerance towards other religions and ethnic groups (“If you hurt another person, the ritual prayers you have done are counted as worthless”), Respect for working people ("The greatest act of worship is to work”). Alevis observe a fast for the first twelve days. (1993), Uyur İdik Uyardılar. Karin Vorhoff. (2003), “The Debate on the Identity of ‘Alevi Kurds’.” In: Paul J. White/Joost Jongerden (eds.). The value corresponding to the second gate (and necessary to enter the third) is âşinalık ("intimacy," perhaps with God). Henceforth, this brought a lot of happiness to the nation. Rather, Muhammad and Ali are representations of Allah's light (and not of Allah himself), being neither independent from God, nor separate characteristics of Him.[14]. You can pay this through local or neighborhood organizations or independently, and directly make a contribution to the causes of your choice. Read the routine of celebrants from Farvardin 1 (starting of Nowruz festival) to Farvardin 13 (ending of Nowruz vacation): Other than being a Persian festival of New Year, Nowruz is likewise a religious occasion for some. This year, Muslims around the world are observing the festival of Eid al-Fitr from the evening of Saturday 23 May until the evening of Sunday 24 May… Click Here: Happy Nowruz Wishes, Messages and Greetings. "They are worried of the repercussions for Alawites there, as well as for themselves."[35]. Muslims have also been urged not to gather in large groups at mosques or in parks to pray. In this connection, scholar Martin van Bruinessen notes a sign from Turkey's Ministry of Religion, attached to Istanbul's shrine of Eyüp Sultan, which presents, ...a long list of ‘superstitious’ practices that are emphatically declared to be non-Islamic and objectionable, such as lighting candles or placing ‘wishing stones’ on the tomb, tying pieces of cloth to the shrine or to the trees in front of it, throwing money on the tomb, asking the dead directly for help, circling seven times around the trees in the courtyard or pressing one’s face against the walls of the türbe in the hope of a supernatural cure, tying beads to the shrine and expecting supernatural support from them, sacrificing roosters or turkeys as a vow to the shrine. Another important Alevi concept is that of the "Perfect Human Being" (Insan-i Kamil). Traditionally there were twelve of these, the most senior being the "dedebaba" (great-grandfather). These include their liturgical languages (Turkish or Kurdish for Alevi, Arabic for Alawites). Furthermore, during the period of Ottoman Empire, Alevis were forbidden to proselytise, and Alevism regenerated itself internally by paternal descent. Kosnick, Kira (2004) "‘Speaking in One’s Own Voice’: Representational Strategies of Alevi Turkish Migrants on Open-Access Television in Berlin. The Making of World Society: Perspectives from Transnational Research. On the eve before Navroz, ladies accumulate around huge cooking pots of sumalak mixing it for quite a long time upon hours and singing Nowruz songs until the dawn of the new year.